Fazan, Rubens; Silva, Carlos Alberto A.; Oliveira, José Antônio Cortes; Salgado, Helio Cesar; Montano, Nicola; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto.
Introduction: Risk factors for life-threatening cardiovascular events were evaluated in an experimental model of epilepsy, the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain. Methods: We used long-term ECG recordings in conscious, one year old, WAR and Wistar control counterparts to evaluate spontaneous arrhythmias and heart rate variability, a tool to assess autonomic cardiac control. Ventricular function was also evaluated using the pressure-volume conductance system in anesthetized rats. Results: Basal RR interval (RRi) was similar between WAR and Wistar rats (188±5 vs 199±6 ms). RRi variability strongly suggests that WAR present an autonomic imbalance with sympathetic overactivity, which is an isolated risk factor for cardiovascular events. Anesthetized WAR showed lower arterial pressure (92±3 vs 115±5 mmHg) and exhibited indices of systolic dysfunction, such as higher ventricle end-diastolic pressure (9.2±0.6 vs 5.6±1 mmHg) and volume (137±9 vs 68±9 μL) as well as lower rate of increase in ventricular pressure (5266±602 vs 7320±538 mmHg.s-1). Indices of diastolic cardiac function, such as lower rate of decrease in ventricular pressure (-5014±780 vs -7766±998 mmHg.s-1) and a higher slope of the linear relationship between end-diastolic pressure and volume (0.078±0.011 vs 0.036±0.011 mmHg.μL), were also found in WAR as compared to Wistar control rats. Moreover, Wistar rats had 3 to 6 ventricular ectopic beats, whereas WAR showed 15 to 30 ectopic beats out of the 20,000 beats analyzed in each rat. Conclusions: The autonomic imbalance observed previously at younger age is also present in aged WAR and, additionally, a cardiac dysfunction was also observed in the rats. These findings make this experimental model of epilepsy a valuable tool to study risk factors for cardiovascular events in epilepsy.
Medeiros, Daniel Castro; Oliveira, Luciano Borges; Mourão, Flávio Afonso Gonçalves; Bastos, Cristiane Perácio; Cairasco, Norberto Garcia; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Mendes, Eduardo Mazoni Andrade Marçal; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra.
Background: Epilepsy is a common neurological disease affecting over 40 million people worldwide. The foremost important challenge of epileptologists has been to control and predict the recurrent and spontaneous seizures of epileptic patients. The application of low frequency electrical stimulation (LFS) in deep brain structures has shown promising results in seizure control. However, the use of LFS as a probing strategy for seizure prediction, thus contributing to a closed loop solution, is still poorly explored. Objective: To improve seizure prediction by producing gradually increasing phase-locked pre-ictal electrographical responses, due to the short-term plastic changes in epileptogenic neural networks, thus behaving as a “programmed” surrogate marker. Methods: Urethane anesthetized rats were divided into 3 groups: the PTZ-noES group was injected with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ 4 mg/ml/min flow rate) i.v. without electrical stimulation (ES); the ES-noPTZ group received ES (0.5 Hz, 0.1 ms pulse width and 0.6 mA) to the amygdaloid complex and the PTZ + ES group received simultaneously i.v. PTZ infusion and ES. After each condition, electrographical parameters and c-Fos expression of regions of interest were evaluated. Results: Although the PTZ + ES group had no evident change in the sustained electrographic seizure onset, duration and/or frequency spectrum; c-Fos labeling showed a different expression pattern when compared to the PTZ-noES and ES-noPTZ. Also, PTZ + ES formed a gradually increasing evoked potential; confirming the strong coupling of reverberant neural networks induced by ES – phase locked to stimuli. Conclusion: ES induces a detectable temporal rearrangement of pre-ictal activity, which has suggestive applicability to seizure prediction.
De Araújo, Mykaella Andrade; Marques, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales; Taniele-Silva, Jamile; Souza, Fernanda Maria De Araújo; De Andrade, Tiago Gomes; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Gitaí, Daniel Leite Góes.
Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing miRNA expression because of its sensitivity and specificity. However, in this type of analysis, a suitable normalizer is required to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported studies that performed a detailed identification and validation of suitable reference genes for miRNA qPCR during the epileptogenic process. Here, using a pilocarpine (PILO) model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), we investigated five potential reference genes, performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm and NormFinder softwares. As a validation strategy, we used each one of the candidate reference genes to measure PILO-induced changes in microRNA-146a levels, a gene whose expression pattern variation in the PILO injected model is known. Our results indicated U6SnRNA and SnoRNA as the most stable candidate reference genes. By geNorm analysis, the normalization factor should preferably contain at least two of the best candidate reference genes (snoRNA and U6SnRNA). In fact, when normalized using the best combination of reference genes, microRNA-146a transcripts were found to be significantly increased in chronic stage, which is consistent with the pattern reported in different models. Conversely, when reference genes were individually employed for normalization, we failed to detect up-regulation of the microRNA-146a gene in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. The data presented here support that the combination of snoRNA and U6SnRNA was the minimum necessary for an accurate normalization of gene expression at the different stages of epileptogenesis that we tested.
Granjeiro, Érica Maria; Marroni, Simone Saldanha; Martins Dias, Daniel Penteado; Heck Bonagamba, Leni Gomes; Costa, Kauê Machado; Dos Santos, Jéssica Cristina; Cortes De Oliveira, J. A.; Machado, Benedito H.; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto.
Introduction: The central nucleus of amygdala plays an important role mediating fear and anxiety responses. It is known that oxytocin microinjections into the central nucleus of amygdala induce hypergrooming, an experimental model of compulsive behavior. We evaluated the behavioral and cardiorespiratory responses of conscious rats microinjected with oxytocin into the central nucleus of amygdala. Methods: Male Wistar rats were implanted with guide cannulae into the central nucleus of amygdala and microinjected with oxytocin (0.5 µg, 1 µg) or saline. After 24 h, rats had a catheter implanted into the femoral artery for pulsatile arterial pressure measurement. The pulsatile arterial pressure was recorded at baseline conditions and data used for cardiovascular variability and baroreflex sensitivity analysis. Respiratory and behavioral parameters were assessed during this data collection session. Results: Microinjections of oxytocin (0.5 µg) into the central nucleus of amygdala produced hypergrooming behavior but did not change cardiorespiratory parameters. However, hypergrooming evoked by microinjections of oxytocin (1 µg) into the central nucleus of amygdala was accompanied by increase in arterial pressure, heart rate and ventilation and augmented the power of low and high (respiratory-related) frequency bands of the systolic arterial pressure spectrum. No changes were observed in power of the low and high frequency bands of the pulse interval spectrum. Baroreflex sensitivity was found lower after oxytocin microinjections, demonstrating that the oxytocin-induced pressor response may involve an inhibition of baroreflex pathways and a consequent facilitation of sympathetic outflow to the cardiovascular system. Conclusions: The microinjection of oxytocin (1 µg) into the central nucleus of amygdala not only induces hypergrooming but also changes cardiorespiratory parameters. Moreover, specific oxytocin receptor antagonism attenuated hypergrooming but did not affect pressor, tachycardic and ventilatory responses to oxytocin, suggesting the involvement of distinct neural pathways.
Tejada, Julian; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Roque, Antonio C.
Temporal lobe epilepsy strongly affects hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells morphology. These cells exhibit seizure-induced anatomical alterations including mossy fiber sprouting, changes in the apical and basal dendritic tree and suffer substantial dendritic spine loss. The effect of some of these changes on the hyperexcitability of the dentate gyrus has been widely studied. For example, mossy fiber sprouting increases the excitability of the circuit while dendritic spine loss may have the opposite effect. However, the effect of the interplay of these different morphological alterations on the hyperexcitability of the dentate gyrus is still unknown. Here we adapted an existing computational model of the dentate gyrus by replacing the reduced granule cell models with morphologically detailed models coming from three-dimensional reconstructions of mature cells. The model simulates a network with 10% of the mossy fiber sprouting observed in the pilocarpine (PILO) model of epilepsy. Different fractions of the mature granule cell models were replaced by morphologically reconstructed models of newborn dentate granule cells from animals with PILO-induced Status Epilepticus, which have apical dendritic alterations and spine loss, and control animals, which do not have these alterations. This complex arrangement of cells and processes allowed us to study the combined effect of mossy fiber sprouting, altered apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells on the excitability of the dentate gyrus model. Our simulations suggest that alterations in the apical dendritic tree and dendritic spine loss in newborn granule cells have opposing effects on the excitability of the dentate gyrus after Status Epilepticus. Apical dendritic alterations potentiate the increase of excitability provoked by mossy fiber sprouting while spine loss curtails this increase.
Schachter, Steven C.; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Kanner, Andres M.
The NEWroscience 2013 international symposium “Epilepsies: Complexity and Comorbidities” was held at the Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine in Brazil from September 18 to 21, 2013. This unique meeting brought together a multidisciplinary group of basic and clinical biomedical researchers, scientists from the applied sciences, and a wide range of clinicians, and immersed them in a setting that was equal parts science and the arts. As suggested by the symposium’s title, the participants addressed the complexities of epilepsy that currently perplex scientists and the comorbidities of epilepsy, which perhaps, if better understood, could provide a framework for understanding complexities of the epilepsies.
Kandratavicius, Ludmyla; Balista, Priscila; Lopes-Aguiar, Cleiton; Ruggiero, Rafael; Umeoka, Eduardo; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Bueno-Junior, Lezio; Leite, Joao
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures that affects millions of people worldwide. Comprehension of the complex mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and seizure generation in temporal lobe epilepsyand other forms of epilepsy cannot be fully acquired in clinical studies with humans. As a result, the use of appropriateanimal models is essential. Some of these models replicate the natural history of symptomatic focal epilepsy with an initial epileptogenic insult, which is followed by an apparent latent period and by a subsequent period of chronic spontaneous seizures. Seizures are a combination of electrical and behavioral events that are able to induce chemical, molecular, and anatomic alterations. In this review, we summarize the most frequently used models of chronic epilepsy and models of acute seizures induced by chemoconvulsants, traumatic brain injury, and electrical or sound stimuli. Genetic models of absence seizures and models of seizures and status epilepticus in the immature brain were also examined. Major uses andlimitations were highlighted, and neuropathological, behavioral, and neurophysiological similarities and differences between the model and the human equivalent were considered. The quest for seizure mechanisms can provide insights into overall brain functions and consciousness, and animal models of epilepsy will continue to promote the progress of bothepilepsy and neurophysiology research.
Bertti, Poliana; Tejada, Julian; Martins, Ana Paula Pinheiro; Dal-Cól, Maria Luiza Cleto; Terra, Vera Cristina; De Oliveira, José Antônio Cortes; Velasco, Tonicarlo Rodrigues; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto
Epileptic syndromes and seizures are the expression of complex brain systems. Because no analysis of complexity has been applied to epileptic seizure semiology, our goal was to apply neuroethology and graph analysis to the study of thecomplexity of behavioral manifestations of epileptic seizures in human frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and temporal lobeepilepsy (TLE). We analyzed the video recordings of 120 seizures of 18 patients with FLE and 28 seizures of 28 patients with TLE. All patients were seizure-free >1 year after surgery (Engel Class I). All patients’ behavioral sequences were analyzed by means of a glossary containing all behaviors and analyzed for neuroethology (Ethomatic software). The same series were used for graph analysis (CYTOSCAPE). Behaviors, displayed as nodes, were connected by edges to other nodes according to their temporal sequence of appearance. Using neuroethology analysis, we confirmed data in the literature such as in FLE: brief/frequent seizures, complex motor behaviors, head and eye version, unilateral/bilateral tonic posturing, speech arrest, vocalization, and rapid postictal recovery and in the case of TLE: presence of epigastric aura, lateralized dystonias, impairment of consciousness/speech during ictal and postictal periods, and development of secondary generalization. Using graph analysis metrics of FLE and TLE confirmed data from flowcharts. However, because of the algorithms we used, they highlighted more powerfully the connectivity and complex associations among behaviors in a quite selective manner, depending on the origin of the seizures. The algorithms we used are commonly employed to track brain connectivity from EEG and MRI sources, which makes our study very promising for future studies of complexity in this field.
Babylonian and Hippocratic descriptions of the sacred disease as well as, for example, quite vivid Renaissance and more contemporary paintings, gravures, and drawings were obviously some of the original recordings of the semiology of epilepsies . Therefore, behavioral studies of epilepsies have been among the oldest in epileptology research, well before any technical advances would allow the tracking of, for example, neural (EEG) and blood flow (MRI) activity associated with those behaviors.
Silva, Glauber S.F. Da; Giusti, Humberto; Castro, Olagide W.; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Gargaglioni, Luciane H.; Branco, Luiz G.S.; Glass, Mogens L.
The medullary raphé is an important component of the central respiratory network, playing a key role in CO2 central chemoreception. However, its participation in hypoxic ventilatory responses is less understood. In the present study, we assessed the role of nucleus raphé obscurus (ROb), and specifically 5-HT neurons confined in the ROb, on ventilatory and thermoregulatory responses to hypoxia. Chemical lesions of the ROb were performed using either ibotenic acid (non-specific lesion; control animals received PBS) or anti-SERT-SAP (5-HT specific lesion; control animals received IgG-SAP). Ventilation (V˙E; whole body plethysmograph) and body temperature (Tb; data loggers) were measured during normoxia (21% O2, N2 balance) and hypoxia exposure (7% O2, N2 balance, 1h) in conscious adult rats. Ibotenic acid or anti-SERT-SAP-induced lesions did not affect baseline values of V˙E and Tb. Similarly, both lesion procedures did not alter the ventilatory or thermoregulatory responses to hypoxia. Although evidence in the literature suggests a role of the rostral medullary raphé in hypoxic ventilatory responses, under the present experimental conditions our data indicate that caudal medullary raphé (ROb) and its 5-HT neurons neither participate in the tonic maintenance of breathing nor in the ventilatory and thermal responses to hypoxia.
Barrera-Bailón, B.; Cortes De Oliveira, J. A.; López, D.E.; Muñoz, L.J.; Garcia-Cairasco, N.; Sancho, C.
Epilepsy modeling is essential for understanding the basic mechanisms of the epileptic process. The Genetic AudiogenicSeizure Hamster (GASH:Sal) exhibits generalized tonic-clonic seizures of genetic origin in response to sound stimulation and is currently being validated as a reliable model of epilepsy. Here, we performed a pharmacological andneuroethological study using well-known and widely used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including phenobarbital (PB), valproic acid (VPA), and levetiracetam (LEV). The intraperitoneal administration of PB (5-20mg/kg) and VPA (100-300mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent decrease in GASH:Sal audiogenic seizure severity scores. The administration of LEV (30-100mg/kg) did not produce a clear effect. Phenobarbital showed a short plasmatic life and had a high antiepileptic effect starting at 10mg/kg that was accompanied by ataxia. Valproic acid acted only at high concentrations and was the AED with the most ataxic effects. Levetiracetam at all doses also produced sedation and ataxia side effects. We conclude that theGASH:Sal is a reliable genetic model of epilepsy suitable to evaluate AEDs.
Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Moyses-Neto, Miguel; Del Vecchio, Flavio; Cortes De Oliveira, J. A.; Santos, Francisco L. Dos; Castro, Olagide W.; Arisi, Gabriel M.; Dantas, Márcio; Carolino, Ruither O. G.; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim; Dagostin, Andre L. A.; Rodrigues, Marcelo C. A.; Leão, Ricardo M.; Quintiliano, Samir A. P.; Silva, Luiz F.; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Lopes, Norberto P.
Caramboxin: Patients suffering from chronic kidney disease are frequently intoxicated after ingesting star fruit. The main symptoms of this intoxication are named in the picture. Bioguided chemical procedures resulted in the discovery of caramboxin, which is a phenylalanine-like molecule that is responsible for intoxication. Functional experiments in vivo and in vitro point towards the glutamatergic ionotropic molecular actions of caramboxin, which explains its convulsant and neurodegenerative properties.
Riascos, David; Buriticá, Efraín; Jiménez, Eliecer; Castro, Olagide; Guzmán, Francisco; Palacios, Mauricio; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Geula, Changiz; Escobar, Martha; Pimienta, Hernán.
The principal aim in the management of patients with cerebral contusion (CC) following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the prevention, amelioration, and treatment of secondary neuronal dysfunction and pathology. Distinguishing between irreversibly damaged and surviving tissue could have considerable therapeutic and prognostic implications for patients. To characterize structurally the neuronal compartment of the contused region in samples derived from patients who suffered severe TBI and were subjected to decompressive craniectomy, we used NeuN, a neuronal marker. We determined that NeuN “patches”, sectors with loss of NeuN immunoreactivity (NeuN-IR), represented 25% of the area among the analyzed cases. We also found a 67% decrease in NeuN levels via Western blot. Tissue adjoining patches of NeuN-IR were considered “preserved” due to the apparent normal density of neurons and conservation of the six cortical layers. Nevertheless, these sectors retained only 39% of their neurons with the classical pattern described for normal NeuN-IR. Using Fluorojade we identified a 16-fold increase in density of moribund neurons in “preserved” sectors when compared to controls. Additionally these abnormalities were enhanced 5-fold in “patches” of NeuN-IR when compared to preserved regions. Therefore, NeuN/Fluorojade abnormalities are indicative of different cell fates characteristic of CC tissue. This analysis addressed exclusively the neuronal compartment and provides new insights into the degenerative state of neurons in the contused region that is likely to contribute to clinical outcome and differentiate TBI from ischemia.
Pereira, M. G. A. G.; Garcia-Cairasco, N; Souza, L. L.; Becari, C.; Duarte, D. A.; Camacho, F. R. B.; Oliveira, José Antonio Cortes De; Gomes, M. D.; Oliveira, E. B.; Salgado, M. C. O.; Costa-Neto, C. M.
The involvement and relevance of the renin-angiotensin system have been established clearly in cardiovascular diseases, and renin-angiotensin system involvement has also been investigated extensively in the central nervous system.Angiotensin II acts classically by binding to the AT1 and AT2 receptors. However, other pathways within the renin-angiotensin system have been described more recently, such as one in which angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) binds to the receptor Mas. In the central nervous system specifically, it has been reported that this heptapeptide is involved in learning and memory processes that occur in central limbic regions, such as the hippocampus. Therefore, this prompted us to investigate the possible role of the Ang-(1-7)-receptor Mas pathway in epileptic seizures, which are also known to recruit limbic areas. In the present study, we show that Ang-(1-7) is the main metabolite of angiotensin I in rat hippocampi, and, strikingly, that thimet oligopeptidase is the main enzyme involved in the generation of Ang-(1-7). Furthermore, elevations in the levels of thimet oligopeptidase, Ang-(1-7), and of receptor Mas transcripts are observed in chronically stimulated epileptic rats, which suggest that the thimet oligopeptidase-Ang-(1-7)-receptor Mas axis may have a functional relevance in the pathophysiology of these animals. In summary, our data, which describe a new preferential biochemical pathway for the generation of Ang-(1-7) in the central nervous system and an increase in the levels of various elements of the related thimetoligopeptidase-Ang-(1-7)-receptor Mas pathway, unveil potential new roles of the renin-angiotensin system in central nervous system pathophysiology.
Marques, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales; Garcia-Cairasco, N; De Mendonça, Leila Rodrigues; Pereira, Marília Gabriela; De Andrade, Tiago Gomes; Paçó-Larson, M. L.; Gitaí, Daniel Leite Góes.
It is well recognized that the reference gene in a RT-qPCR should be properly validated to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. We investigated eight potential reference genes in two different pilocarpine PILO-models of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKepeer softwares. Then, as a validation strategy, we conducted a relative expression analysis of the Gfap gene. Our results indicate that in the systemic PILO-model Actb, Gapdh, Rplp1, Tubb2a and Polr1a mRNAs were highly stable in hippocampus of rats from all experimental and control groups, whereas Gusb revealed to be the most variable one. In fact, we observed that using Gusb for normalization, the relative mRNA levels of the Gfap gene differed from those obtained with stable genes. On the contrary, in the intrahippocampal PILO-model, all softwares included Gusb as a stable gene, whereas B2m was indicated as the worst candidate gene. The results obtained for the other reference genes were comparable to those observed for the systemic Pilo-model. The validation of these data by the analysis of the relative expression of Gfap showed that the upregulation of the Gfap gene in the hippocampus of rats sacrificed 24 hours after status epilepticus (SE) was undetected only when B2m was used as the normalizer. These findings emphasize that a gene that is stable in one pathology model may not be stable in a different experimental condition related to the same pathology and therefore, the choice of reference genes depends on study design.
Tejada, Julián; Costa, Kauê M.; Bertti, Poliana; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto
It is widely accepted that epilepsies are complex syndromes due to their multi-factorial origins and manifestations. Different mathematical and computational descriptions use appropriate methods to address nonlinear relationships, chaotic behaviors and emergent properties. These theoretical approaches can be divided into two major categories: descriptive, such as flowcharts, graphs and other statistical analyses, and explicative, which include both realistic and abstract models. Although these modeling tools have brought great advances, a common framework to guide their design, implementation and evaluation, with the goal of future integration, is still needed. In the current review, we discuss two examples of complexity analysis that can be performed with epilepsy data: behavioral sequences of temporal lobe seizures and alterations in an experimental cellular model. We also highlight the importance of the creation of model repositories for the epileptology field and encourage the development of mathematical descriptions of complex systems, together with more accurate simulation techniques.
Restini, Carolina; Reis, R.; Costa Neto, C. M.; Garcia-Cairasco, N; Cortes De Oliveira, J. A.; Bendhack, L. M.
Epidemiological studies have found that the risk for cardiovascular disease is increased in patients with epilepsy. The Renin Angiontensin System (RAS), an important player in vascular tone control, is also involved in many neurological disorders, including seizures and epilepsy. Although it has been reported that Angiotensin II (Ang II) release and Angiotensin receptors expression are altered in many cerebral areas in patients/animal models with neurological disorders, there are no data on the vascular function. We evaluated Ang I and Ang II-mediated vascular responses and to correlate their contractile responses to the pres- ence of endothelium and the protein levels of components of the RAS (AT1, AT2, Mas and ACE) in aorta isolated from genetically epileptic rats (WAR strain). The major finding was that the vascular contractile response induced by Ang I and Ang II is endothelium-dependent. Ang II induced contractions in aortas from Wistar rats either with intact endothelium (E+) (1.16 ± 0.04 g, n = 6) and endothelium-denuded (E-) (1.24 ± 0.04 g, n = 6). Maximum contractile response (ME) induced by Ang I was lower in Wistar E+ (0.45 ± 0.03 g, n = 6) compared with Wistar E- (1.13 ± 0.08 g, n = 6). Ang I and Ang II failed to induce contraction in WAR E+, whereas the ME induced by Ang I in WAR E- was lower (0.52 ± 0.04 g, n = 11) than in the Wistar. ME induced by Ang II in aortas from WAR was also lower (0.40 ± 0.03 g, n = 11) compared with Wistar. AT1 receptor expression in both E+ WAR and Wistar was lower than in both E- WAR and Wistar. AT2 and Mas receptor expression was higher in Wistar E- and E+ as compared to WAR E- and E+. ACE expression was higher in both E+ WAR and Wistar, but it was lower in both E- WAR and Wistar. Endothelium impairs the contractile response induced by Angiotensin in WAR, suggesting that endothelial relaxing factors play important role on the aorta contraction.
Tejada, Julián; Tejada, Julián; Arisi, Gabriel M.; García-Cairasco, Norberto; Roque, Antonio C.; García-Cairasco, Norberto; Arisi, Gabriel M.; Roque, Antonio C.
Computer simulations of external current stimulations of dentate gyrus granule cells of rats withStatus Epilepticus induced by pilocarpine and control rats were used to evaluate whether morphological differences alone between these cells have an impact on their electrophysiological behavior. The cell models were constructed using morphological information from tridimensional reconstructions with Neurolucida software. To evaluate the effect of morphology differences alone, ion channel conductances, densities and distributions over the dendritic trees of dentate gyrus granule cells were the same for all models. External simulated currents were injected in randomly chosen dendrites belonging to one of three different areas of dentate gyrus granule cell molecular layer: inner molecular layer, medial molecular layer and outer molecular layer. Somatic membrane potentials were recorded to determine firing frequencies and inter-spike intervals. The results show that morphologically altered granule cells from pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats are less excitable than control cells, especially when they are stimulated in the inner molecular layer, which is the target area for mossy fibers that sprout after pilocarpine-induced cell degeneration. This suggests that morphological alterations may act as a protective mechanism to allow dentate gyrus granule cells to cope with the increase of stimulation caused by mossy fiber sprouting.
Tejada, Julian; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Roque, Antonio C.
Newly born dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells (GCs) after Status Epilecticus induced by pilocarpine (PILO) exhibit morphological changes including narrower arborizations, greater number of branches and more endings in the inner molecular layer (IML). The increased concentration of dendrites in the IML where granule cell axons (mossy fibers) sprout in epileptic animals and make extensive recurrent excitatory synapses may contribute to enhance the DG hyperexcitability. A previous DG network model has shown that mossy fiber sprouting has a crucial role on hyperexcitability with only 10% sprouting being enough to generate spread of activity to all GCs in the network. However, the additional effect of GC morphological changes on DG hyperexcitability is as yet unknown. Here we used the DG model to evaluate the effect of different GC morphologies on the network activity.
Castro, Olagide W.; Santos, Victor R.; Pun, Raymund Y. K.; Mcklveen, Jessica M.; Batie, Matthew; Holland, Katherine D.; Gardner, Margaret; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Herman, James P.; Danzer, Steve C.
Stress is the most commonly reported precipitating factor for seizures in patients with epilepsy. Despite compelling anecdotal evidence for stress-induced seizures, animal models of the phenomena are sparse and possible mechanisms are unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increased levels of the stress-associated hormone corticosterone (CORT) would increase epileptiform activity and spontaneous seizure frequency in mice rendered epileptic following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. We monitored video-EEG activity in pilocarpine-treated mice 24/7 for a period of four or more weeks, during which animals were serially treated with CORT or vehicle. CORT increased the frequency and duration of epileptiform events within the first 24 hours of treatment, and this effect persisted for up to two weeks following termination of CORT injections. Interestingly, vehicle injection produced a transient spike in CORT levels – presumably due to the stress of injection – and a modest but significant increase in epileptiform activity. Neither CORT nor vehicle treatment significantly altered seizure frequency; although a small subset of animals did appear responsive. Taken together, our findings indicate that treatment of epileptic animals with exogenous CORT designed to mimic chronic stress can induce a persistent increase in interictal epileptiform activity.
Rossetti, Franco; Rodrigues, Marcelo Cairrão Araújo; Marroni, Simone S.; Fernandes, Artur; Foresti, Maira Licia; Romcy-Pereira, Rodrigo N.; De Araújo, Dráulio Barros; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto
The role of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNPr) and superior colliculus (SC) network in rat strains susceptible to audiogenic seizures still remain underexplored in epileptology. In a previous study from our laboratory, the GABAergic drugs bicuculline (BIC) and muscimol (MUS) were microinjected into the deep layers of either the anterior SC (aSC) or the posterior SC (pSC) in animals of the Wistar audiogenic rat (WAR) strain submitted to acoustic stimulation, in which simultaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) recording of the aSC, pSC, SNPr and striatum was performed. Only MUS microinjected into the pSC blocked audiogenic seizures. In the present study, we expanded upon these previous results using the retrograde tracer Fluorogold (FG) microinjected into the aSC and pSC in conjunction with quantitative EEG analysis (wavelet transform), in the search for mechanisms associated with the susceptibility of this inbred strain to acoustic stimulation. Our hypothesis was that the WAR strain would have different connectivity between specific subareas of the superior colliculus and the SNPr when compared with resistant Wistar animals and that these connections would lead to altered behavior of this network during audiogenic seizures. Wavelet analysis showed that the only treatment with an anticonvulsant effect was MUS microinjected into the pSC region, and this treatment induced a sustained oscillation in the theta band only in the SNPr and in the pSC. These data suggest that in WAR animals, there are at least two subcortical loops and that the one involved in audiogenic seizure susceptibility appears to be the pSC-SNPr circuit. We also found that WARs presented an increase in the number of FG+ projections from the posterior SNPr to both the aSC and pSC (primarily to the pSC), with both acting as proconvulsant nuclei when compared with Wistar rats. We concluded that these two different subcortical loops within the basal ganglia are probably a consequence of the WAR genetic background.
Kandratavicius, Ludmyla; Ruggiero, Rafael Naime; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Leite, João Pereira
OBJECTIVE: There is accumulating evidence that the limbic system is pathologically involved in cases of psychiatric comorbidities in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. Our objective was to develop a conceptual framework describing how neuropathological, neurochemical and electrophysiological aspects might contribute to the development of psychiatric symptoms in TLE and the putative neurobiological mechanisms that cause mood disorders in this patient subgroup. METHODS: In this review, clinical, experimental and neuropathological findings, as well as neurochemical features of the limbic system were examined together to enhance our understanding of the association between TLE and psychiatric comorbidities. Finally, the value of animal models in epilepsy and mood disorders was discussed. CONCLUSIONS: TLE and psychiatric symptoms coexist more frequently than chance would predict. Alterations and neurotransmission disturbance among critical anatomical networks, and impaired or aberrant plastic changes might predispose patients with TLE to mood disorders. Clinical and experimental studies of the effects of seizures on behavior and electrophysiological patterns may offer a model of how limbic seizures increase the vulnerability of TLE patients to precipitants of psychiatric symptoms.
Gitaí, Daniel L G; Fachin, A. L.; Mello, S. S.; Elias, Carol Fuzeti; Bittencourt, Jackson Cioni; Da Sila Passos G A; Garcia-Cairasco, N.; Paçó-Larson M L.
The aim of this study was to identify molecular pathways involved in audiogenic seizures in the epilepsy-prone WistarAudiogenic Rat (WAR). For this, we used a suppression-subtractive hybridization (SSH) library from the hippocampus of WARs coupled to microarray comparative gene expression analysis, followed by Northern blot validation of individual genes. We discovered that the levels of the non-protein coding (npc) RNA BC1 were significantly reduced in the hippocampus of WARs submitted to repeated audiogenic seizures (audiogenic kindling) when compared to Wistar resistant rats and to both naive WARs and Wistars. By quantitative in situ hybridization, we verified lower levels of BC1 RNA in the GD-hilus and significant signal ratio reduction in the stratum radiatum and stratum pyramidale of hippocampal CA3 subfield of audiogenickindled animals. Functional results recently obtained in a BC1⁻/⁻ mouse model and our current data are supportive of a potential disruption in signaling pathways, upstream of BC1, associated with the seizure susceptibility of WARs.
Furtado, M. A.; Castro, O. W.; Delvecchio, F.; Cortes De Oliveira, J. A.; Garcia-Cairasco, N.
Epileptic seizures are clinical manifestations of neuronal discharges characterized by hyperexcitability and/or hypersynchrony in the cortex and other subcortical regions. The pilocarpine (PILO) model of epilepsy mimics temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in humans. In the present study, we used a more selective approach: microinjection of PILO into the hilus of the dentate gyrus (H-PILO). Our main goal was to evaluate the behavioral and morphological alterations present in this model of TLE. Seventy-six percent of all animals receiving H-PILO injections had continuous seizures called status epilepticus (SE). A typical pattern of evolution of limbic seizures during the SE with a latency of 29.3 ± 16.3 minutes was observed using an analysis of behavioral sequences. During the subsequent 30 days, 71% of all animals exhibitedspontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) during a daily 8-hour videotaping session. These SRSs had a very conspicuous and characteristic pattern detected by behavioral sequences or neuroethiological analysis. Only the animals that had SE showed positive Neo-Timm staining in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (sprouting) and reduced cell density in Ammon’s horn pyramidal cell subfield CA1. However, no correlation between the intensity of sprouting and the mean number and total number of SRSs was found. Additionally, using Fluoro-Jade staining, we observed neurodegeneration in the hilus and pyramidal cell subfields CA3 and CA1 24 hours after SE. These data indicate that H-PILO is a reliable, selective, efficient, low-mortality model that mimics the acute and chronic behavioral and morphological aspects of TLE.
Castro, O. W.; Furtado, M. A.; Tilelli, C. Q.; Fernandes, Artur; Pajolla, G P; Garcia-Cairasco, N.
The aims of this study were to characterize the spatial distribution of neurodegeneration after status epilepticus (SE) inducedby either systemic (S) or intrahippocampal (H) injection of pilocarpine (PILO), two models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), using FluoroJade (FJ) histochemistry, and to evaluate the kinetics of FJ staining in the H-PILO model. Therefore, we measured the severity of behavioral seizures during both types of SE and also evaluated the FJ staining pattern at 12, 24, and 168 h (7days) after the H-PILO insult. We found that the amount of FJ-positive (FJ+) area was greater in SE induced by S-PILO as compared to SE induced by H-PILO. After SE induced by H-PILO, we found more FJ+ cells in the hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG) at 12 h, in CA3 at 24 h, and in CA1 at 168 h. We found also no correlation between seizure severity and the number of FJ+ cells in the hippocampus. Co-localization studies of FJ+ cells with either neuronal-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) labeling 24 h after H-PILO demonstrated spatially selectiveneurodegeneration. Double labeling with FJ and parvalbumin (PV) showed both FJ+/PV+ and FJ+/PV- cells in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, among other areas. The current data indicate that FJ+ areas are differentially distributed in the two TLE models and that these areas are greater in the S-PILO than in the H-PILO model. There is also a selective kinetics of FJ+ cells in the hippocampus after SE induced by H-PILO, with no association with the severity of seizures, probably as a consequence of the extra-hippocampal damage. These data point to SE induced by H-PILO as a low-mortality model of TLE, with regional spatial and temporal patterns of FJ staining.
Santos, V.R.; de Castro, O.W.; Pun, R.Y.K.; Hester, M.S.; Murphy, B.L.; Loepke, A.W.; Garcia-Cairasco, N.; Danzer, S.C.
During the development of epilepsy in adult animals, newly generated granule cells integrate abnormally into the hippocampus. These new cells migrate to ectopic locations in the hilus, develop aberrant basal dendrites, contribute to mossy fiber sprouting, and exhibit changes in apical dendrite structure and dendritic spine number. Mature granule cells do not appear to exhibit migration defects, basal dendrites, and mossy fiber sprouting, but whether they exhibit apical dendrite abnormalities or spine changes is not known. To address these questions, we examined the apical dendritic structure of bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu)-birthdated, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing granule cells born 2 months before pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. In contrast to immature granule cells, exposing mature granule cells to status epilepticus did not significantly disrupt the branching structure of their apical dendrites. Mature granule cells did, however, exhibit significant reductions in spine density and spine number relative to age-matched cells from control animals. These data demonstrate that while mature granule cells are resistant to developing the gross structural abnormalities exhibited by younger granule cells, they show similar plastic rearrangement of their dendritic spines.
Fazan, Rubens; De Oliveira, Mauro; Cortes De Oliveira, J. A.; Salgado, Helio C.; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto.
We evaluated autonomic cardiovascular modulation and baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) in a particular epileptic ratstrain, Wistar audiogenic rats (WARs). We studied spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity as well as reflex changes in HR evoked by phenylephrine/nitroprusside-induced changes in arterial pressure (AP). Atropine and propranolol were used to measure cardiac autonomic tone. AP and pulse interval (PI) variability analysis were performed in the time and frequency domains (FFT spectral analysis) to evaluate cardiovascular sympatovagal modulation in WARs. AP and HR were higher in WARs (109±2 mm Hg and 366±9 bpm) than in Wistar control rats (101±2 mm Hg and 326±10 bpm). The power of the low-frequency band of both AP and PI spectra, a marker of sympathetic modulation, was higher in WARs than in Wistar control rats. The high-frequency power of the PI spectra in normalized units, which is linked to cardiac vagal modulation, was lower in WARs. Both WARs and Wistar control rats had similar vagal tone (91±13 bpm vs 94±11 bpm, respectively), but sympathetic tone was higher in WARs (30±4 bpm vs 14±4 bpm). No differences were detected in the gain of evoked (1.32±0.1 ms/mm Hg vs 1.35±0.2 ms/mm Hg) or spontaneous (1.34±0.2 ms/mm Hg vs 2.04±0.2 ms/mm Hg) baroreflex sensitivity. The higher AP and HR and the autonomic imbalance (sympathetic predominance) in WARs might be associated with an increased risk of life-threatening cardiovascular events in this strain.
Calábria, Luciana Karen; Peixoto, Pablo Marco Veras; Passos Lima, Andreia Barcelos; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; de Moraes, Viviane Rodrigues Alves; Teixeira, Renata Roland; dos Santos, Claudia Tavares; e Silva, Letícia Oliveira; da Silva, Maria de Fátima Rodrigues; dos Santos, Ana Alice Diniz; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Martins, Antônio Roberto; Espreafico, Enilza Maria; Espindola, Foued Salmen
Honey bees have brain structures with specialized and developed systems of communication that account for memory, learning capacity and behavioral organization with a set of genes homologous to vertebrate genes. Many microtubule- and actin-based molecular motors are involved in axonal/dendritic transport. Myosin-Va is present in the honey bee Apismellifera nervous system of the larvae and adult castes and subcastes. DYNLL1/LC8 and myosin-IIb, -VI and -IXb have also been detected in the adult brain. SNARE proteins, such as CaMKII, clathrin, syntaxin, SNAP25, munc18, synaptophysin and synaptotagmin, are also expressed in the honey bee brain. Honey bee myosin-Va displayed ATP-dependent solubility and was associated with DYNLL1/LC8 and SNARE proteins in the membrane vesicle-enriched fraction. Myosin-Va expression was also decreased after the intracerebral injection of melittin and NMDA. The immunolocalization of myosin-Va and -IV,DYNLL1/LC8, and synaptophysin in mushroom bodies, and optical and antennal lobes was compared with the brainmorphology based on Neo-Timm histochemistry and revealed a distinct and punctate distribution. This result suggested that the pattern of localization is associated with neuron function. Therefore, our data indicated that the roles of myosins,DYNLL1/LC8, and SNARE proteins in the nervous and visual systems of honey bees should be further studied under different developmental, caste and behavioral conditions.
Umeoka, Eduardo H.L.; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Elias, Lucila L.K.; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto
The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain is a genetic model of sound-induced reflex epilepsy which was selected starting from audiogenic seizures susceptible Wistar rats. Wistar resistant rats were used as WAR’s control in this study. In the acute situation, audiogenic seizures (AS) in WARs mimic tonic-clonic seizures and, in the chronic protocol, mimic temporal lobe epilepsy. AS have been shown to evoke neuroendocrine responses; however, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in the WAR has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) responses to exogenous ACTH stimulation (8 ng/rat), fifteen minute restraint stress and circadian variation (8 am and 8 pm) under rest conditions in these animals through plasma measurements of ACTH and corticosterone concentrations. We also measured the body weight from birth to the 9th week of life and determined adrenal gland weight. We found that WARs are smaller than Wistar and presented a higher adrenal gland weight with a higher level of corticosterone release after intravenous ACTH injection. They also showed altered HPA axis circadian rhythms and responses to restraint stress. Our data indicate that, despite the lower body weight, WARs have increased adrenal gland weight associated with enhanced pituitary and adrenal responsiveness after HPA axis stimulation. Thus, we propose WARs as a model to study stress-epilepsy interactions and epilepsy-neuropsychiatry comorbidities.
Bertti, Poliana; Dal-Cól, Maria Luiza Cleto; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Kato, Mery; Terra, Vera Cristina; Cortes De Oliveira, J. A.; Velasco, Tonicarlo Rodrigues; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto
Ictal behavior coupled with SPECT findings during 28 seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (13 left; 15 right) was displayed as flowcharts from right-sided (RTLE) plus left-sided (LTLE) seizures.Ictal SPECT was classified blind to neuroethology. Behaviors were categorized as ipsilateral to the epileptogenic zone (IL), contralateral to the epileptogenic zone (CL), or bilateral. SPECT intensity and region were categorized as IL or CL to the epileptogenic zone. All patients developed automatisms and had hyperperfusion in their temporal lobes. Patients’ verbal responses to questions had statistical interactions in RTLE but not in LTLE sum. Most CL dystonic posturing was correlated to IL basal ganglia hyperperfusion. Basal ganglia activation occurred in seizures without dystonic posturing and CL manual automatisms, and lack of IL dystonic posturing and the presence of CL cerebellar hemispheric hyperperfusion were also observed. Coupling of neuroethology and SPECT findings reliably evaluates ictal behavior and functionality of associated brain areas.
Schiavon, Angélica P.; Milani, Humberto; Romanini, Cássia V.; Foresti, Maira Licia; Castro, Olagide W.; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; De Oliveira, Rúbia M.W.
This study was aimed to determine whether imipramine chronic treatment promotes neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) and interferes with neuronal death in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus after transient global cerebral ischemia (TGCI) inrats. After TGCI, animals were treated with imipramine (20mg/kg, i.p.) or saline during 14 days. 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine-5′-monophosphate (BrdU) was injected 24h after the last imipramine or saline injection to label proliferating cells. In order to confirm the effect of TGCI on neuronal death and cell proliferation, a group of animals was sacrificed 7 days after TGCI. Neurogenesis and neurodegeneration were evaluated by doublecortin (DCX)-immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade C (FJC)-staining, respectively. The rate of cell proliferation increases 7 days but returns to basal levels 14 days after TGCI. There was a significant increase in the number of FJC-positive neurons in the CA1 of animals 7 and 14 days after TGCI. Chronic imipramine treatment increased cell proliferation in the SGZ of DG and reduced the neurodegeneration in the CA1 of the hippocampus 14 days after TGCI. Immunohistochemistry for DCX detected an increased number of newly generated neurons in the hippocampal DG 14 days after TGCI, which was not affected by imipramine treatment. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether imipramine treatment for longer time would be able to promote survival of newly generated neurons as well as to improve functional recovery after TGCI.
Reis, Glaucia Melo; Dias, Quintino Moura; S. Silveira, João Walter; Del Vecchio, Flavio; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Prado, Wiliam A.
A role for the occipital or retrosplenial cortex in nociceptive processing has not been demonstrated yet, but connections from these cortices to brain structures involved in descending pain-inhibitory mechanisms were already demonstrated. This study demonstrated that the electrical stimulation of the occipital or retrosplenial cortex produces antinociception in the rat tail-flick and formalin tests. Bilateral lesions of the dorsolateral funiculus abolished the effect of cortical stimulation in the tail-flick test. Injection of glutamate into the same targets was also antinociceptive in the tail-flick test. No rats stimulated in the occipital orretrosplenial cortex showed any change in motor performance on the Rota-rod test, or had epileptiform changes in the EEG recording during or up to 3 hours after stimulation. The antinociception induced by occipital cortex stimulation persisted after neural block of the retrosplenial cortex. The effect of retrosplenial cortex stimulation also persisted after neural block of theoccipital cortex. We conclude that stimulation of the occipital or retrosplenial cortex in rats leads to antinociception activating distinct descending pain-inhibitory mechanisms, and this is unlikely to result from a reduced motor performance or a postictal phenomenon. PERSPECTIVE: This study presents evidence that stimulation of the retrosplenial or occipital cortex produces antinociception in rat models of acute pain. These findings enhance our understanding of the role of the cerebral cortex in control of pain.
Galvis-Alonso, O.Y.; Garcia, A.M.B.; Orejarena, M.J.; Lamprea, M.R.; Botelho, S.; Conde, C.A.; Morato, S.; Garcia-Cairasco, N.
The elevated plus-maze is an animal model used to study anxiety. In a second session, rats show a reduction in the exploratory behavior even when the two sessions are separated by intervals as large as 7 days. The aim of the present studywas to investigate whether the reduction in the exploratory behavior is maintained after intervals larger than 7 days. Additionally, we aimed at investigating eventual correlations between behaviors in the plus-maze and activation of limbicstructures as measured by Fos protein expression after the second session. Rats were tested for 5 min in the elevated plus-maze and re-tested 3, 9 or 33 days later. Other groups were tested only once. The rat brains were processed for immunohistochemical detection of Fos protein. The results show a decrease in the open arms exploration in the second trial with intervals of 3, 9 and 33 days. The expression of Fos protein in the piriform cortex, septal nucleus and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus in the groups tested with intervals of 9 and 33 days were statistically different from the other groups. The alterations observed in exploratory behavior in the second session in the plus-maze did not correlate with Fosexpression. In conclusion, although the specific test conditions were sufficient to evoke behavioral alterations in exploration in the elevated plus-maze, they were enough to induce significant Fos protein expression in piriform cortex, septal nucleus and thalamic and hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei but not in other areas such as dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and amygdala nuclei, known to be also active participants in circuits controlling fear and anxiety.
Pereira, Marilia; Becari, Christiane; Cortes De Oliveira, J. A.; Salgado, Maria ; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Costa-Neto, Claudio
The RAS (renin-angiotensin system) is classically involved in BP (blood pressure) regulation and water-electrolyte balance, and in the central nervous system it has been mostly associated with homoeostatic processes, such as thirst, hormone secretion and thermoregulation. Epilepsies are chronic neurological disorders characterized by recurrent epileptic seizuresthat affect 1-3% of the world’s population, and the most commonly used anticonvulsants are described to be effective in approx. 70% of the population with this neurological alteration. Using a rat model of epilepsy, we found that components of the RAS, namely ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) and the AT1 receptor (angiotensin II type 1 receptor) are up-regulated in the brain (2.6- and 8.2-fold respectively) following repetitive seizures. Subsequently, epileptic animals were treated with clinically used doses of enalapril, an ACE inhibitor, and losartan, an AT1 receptor blocker, leading to a significant decrease in seizure severities. These results suggest that centrally acting drugs that target the RAS deserve further investigation as possible anticonvulsant agents and may represent an additional strategy in the management of epileptic patients.
de Carvalho, Débora; Bícego, Kênia C.; de Castro, Olagide W.; da Silva, Glauber S.F.; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Gargaglioni, Luciane Helena
We assessed the role of NK-1 receptors (NK1R) expressing neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) on cardiorespiratoryresponses to hypercapnia. To this end, we injected substance P-saporin conjugate (SP-SAP) to kill NK-1 immunoreactive (NK1R-ir) neurons or SAP alone as a control. Immunohistochemistry for NK1R, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-ir) and Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD-ir) were performed to verify if NK1R-expressing neurons, catecholaminergic and/or GABAergicneurons were eliminated. A reduced NK1R-ir in the LC (72%) showed the effectiveness of the lesion. SP-SAP lesion also caused a reduction of TH-ir (66%) and GABAergic neurons (70%). LC SP-SAP lesion decreased by 30% the ventilatoryresponse to 7% CO(2) and increased the heart rate (fH) during hypercapnia but did not affect MAP. The present data suggest that different populations of neurons (noradrenergic, GABAergic, and possibly others) in the LC express NK1R modulating differentially the hypercapnic ventilatory response, since catecholaminergic neurons are excitatory and GABAergic ones are inhibitory. Additionally, NK1R-ir neurons in the LC, probably GABAergic ones, seem to modulate fH during CO(2) exposure, once our previous data demonstrated that catecholaminergic lesion does not affect this variable.
The brain is a complex system that, in the normal condition, has emergent properties like those associated with activity-dependent plasticity in learning and memory, and in pathological situations, manifests abnormal long-term phenomena like the epilepsies. Data from our laboratory and from the literature were classified qualitatively as sources of complexity and emergent properties from behavior to electrophysiological, cellular, molecular, and computational levels. We used such models as brainstem-dependent acute audiogenic seizures and forebrain-dependent kindled audiogenic seizures. Additionally we used chemical or electrical experimental models of temporal lobe epilepsy that induce status epilepticus with behavioral, anatomical, and molecular sequelae such as spontaneous recurrent seizures and long-term plastic changes. Current computational neuroscience tools will help the interpretation, storage, and sharing of the exponential growth of information derived from those studies. These strategies are considered solutions to deal with the complexity of brain pathologies such as the epilepsies.
Dal-Col, M. L. C.; Bertti, Poliana; Bustamante, Vera Cristina Terra; Velasco, T; Rodrigues, M C A Araujo; Wichert-Ana, L.; Sakamoto, A. C.; Garcia-Cairasco, N.
In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) seizures, tonic or clonic motor behaviors (TCB) are commonly associated with automatisms, versions, and vocalizations, and frequently occur during secondary generalization. Dystonias are a common finding and appear to be associated with automatisms and head deviation, but have never been directly linked to generalized tonic or clonic behaviors. The objective of the present study was to assess whether dystonias and TCB are coupled in the same seizure or are associated in an antagonistic and exclusive pattern. Ninety-one seizures in 55 patients with TLE due to mesialtemporal sclerosis were analyzed. Only patients with postsurgical seizure outcome of Engel class I or II were included. Presence or absence of dystonia and secondary generalization was recorded. Occurrence of dystonia and occurrence of bilateral tonic or clonic behaviors were negatively correlated. Dystonia and TCB may be implicated in exclusive, non-coincidental, or even antagonistic effects or phenomena in TLE seizures. A neural network related to the expression of one behavioral response (e.g., basal ganglia activation and dystonia) might theoretically “displace” brain activation or disrupt the synchronism of another network implicated in pathological circuit reverberation and seizure expression. The involvement of basal ganglia in the blockade of convulsive seizures has long been observed in animal models. The question is: Do dystonia and underlying basal ganglia activation represent an attempt of the brain to block imminent secondary generalization?
Pereira, M. G. A. G.; Gitaí, Daniel L G; Paçólarson, Maria Luiza; Pesquero, J. B.; Garcia-Cairasco, N; Costa Neto, C. M.
Epileptic seizures are hypersynchronous, paroxystic and abnormal neuronal discharges. Epilepsies are characterized by diverse mechanisms involving alteration of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission that result in hyperexcitability of the central nervous system (CNS). Enhanced neuronal excitability can also be achieved by inflammatory processes, including the participation of cytokines, prostaglandins or kinins, molecules known to be involved in either triggering or in the establishment of inflammation. Multiple inductions of audiogenic seizures in the Wistar audiogenic rat (WAR) strain are a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), due to the recruitment of limbic areas such as hippocampus and amygdala. In this study we investigated the modulation of the B1 and B2 kinin receptors expression levels in neonatal WARs as well as in adult WARs subjected to the TLE model. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-1 beta) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines were also evaluated, as well as cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Our results showed that the B1 and B2 kinin receptors mRNAs were up-regulated about 7- and 4-fold, respectively, in the hippocampus of kindled WARs. On the other hand, the expressions of the IL-1 beta, IL-10 and COX-2 were not related to the observed increase of expression of kinin receptors. Based on those results we believe that the B1 and B2 kinin receptors have a pivotal role in this model of TLE, although their participation is not related to an inflammatory process. We believe that kinin receptors in the CNS may act in seizure mechanisms by participating in a specific kininergic neurochemical pathway.
Foresti, Maira Licia; Garcia-Cairasco, N; Arisi, Gabriel Maisonnave; Fernandes, Artur; Tilelli, Cristiane Queixa
Zinc is present in high concentration in many structures of the limbic circuitry, however the role of zinc as a neuromodulator in such synapses is still uncertain. In this work, we verified the effects of zinc chelation in an animal model of epileptogenesis induced by amygdala rapid kindling. The basolateral amygdala was electrically stimulated ten times per day for 2 days. A single stimulus was applied on the third day. Stimulated animals received injections of PBS or the zinc chelator diethildythiocarbamate acid (DEDTC) before each stimulus series. Animals were monitored with video-EEG and were perfused 3h after the last stimulus for subsequent neo-Timm and Fluoro-Jade B analysis. Zinc chelation decreased theduration of both behavioral seizures and electrical after-discharges, and also decreased the EEG spikes frequency, without changing the progression of behavioral seizure severity. These results indicate that the zinc ion may have a facilitatory role during kindling progression.
Arisi, Gabriel; Garcia-Cairasco, N.
Here, we describe dentate gyrus newly born granule cells morphology in rats’ temporal lobe epilepsy pilocarpine model. Digital reconstruction of doublecortin-positive neurons revealed that apical dendrites had the same total length and number of nodes in epileptic and control animals. Nonetheless, concentric spheres analyses revealed that apical dendrites spatial distribution was radically altered in epileptic animals. The apical dendrites had more bifurcations inside the granular cell layer and more terminations in the inner molecular layer of epileptic dentate gyrus. Branch order analyses showed that second- and third-order dendrites were shorter in epileptic animals. Apical dendrites were concentrated in regions like the inner molecular layer where granular neuron axons, named mossy fibers, sprout in epileptic animals. The combination of altered dendritic morphology and number enhancement of the new granular neurons suggests a deleterious role of hippocampal neurogenesis in epileptogenesis. Being more numerous and with dendrites concentrated in regions where aberrant axon terminals sprout, the new granular neurons could contribute to the slow epileptogenesis at hippocampal circuits commonly observed in temporal lobe epilepsy.
Marroni, Simone Saldanha; Garcia-Cairasco, N; Nakano, Frederico Nakane; Gati, Christiano Del Cantoni; Cortes De Oliveira, J. A.; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose.
Oxytocin (OT) is a neurosecretory nonapeptide synthesized in hypothalamic cells that project to the neurohypophysis as well as to widely distributed sites in the central nervous system. Central OT microinjections induce a variety of cognitive, sexual, reproductive, grooming and affiliative behaviors in animals. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) includes a range of cognitive and behavioral symptoms that bear some relationship with OT. Here, we study the neuroanatomical and cellularsubstrates of the hypergrooming induced by administration of OT in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA). In this context, thishypergrooming is considered as a model of compulsive behavior. Our data suggest a link between the CeA and the hypothalamic grooming area (HGA). The HGA includes parts of the paraventricular nucleus and the dorsal hypothalamic area. Our data on colocalization of OT (immunohistochemistry for peptide), OT receptor (binding assay) and its retrogradely labeled cells after Fluoro-Gold injection in the CeA suggest that CeA and connections are important substrates of the circuit underlying this OT-dependent compulsive behavioral pattern.
Dal-Col, Maria Luiza Cleto; Bustamante, Vera Cristina Terra; T, Velasco; Cortes De Oliveira, J. A.; Sakamoto, Americo C; Garcia-Cairasco, N.
The aim of this investigation was to apply neuroethology to the study of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). For this purpose, 42 seizures in 7 patients recorded during video/EEG monitoring (1997-1998) were analyzed by means of a behavioral glossary containing all behaviors. Video recordings were reobserved, and all patients’ behaviors were annotated second-by-second. Data were analyzed using Ethomatic software and displayed as flowcharts including frequency, mean duration, and sequential statistic interaction of behavioral items (chi2 > or = 10.827, P<0.001). Flowcharts of (1) a group of seizures from a single patient, (2) the sum of four seizures per patient of two patients with right and five patients with left TLE, and (3) the comparison of left versus right TLE are shown. Well-established data in the literature were confirmed, such as aura (especially epigastric), contralateral lateralization value of dystonia and version, consciousness and language alterations in ictal and postictal periods, mostly with respect to dominant hemisphere involvement, among others. Less well established data such as awakening seizures in TLE patients, lateralization value of facial wiping (ipsilateral to the focus), statistically significant associations between behavioral pairs (dyads), and new behavioral sequences in TLE were also observed. We suggest that neuroethology also has great potential in the study of human epilepsy semiology. This work had an important role in method standardization for human epilepsy, setting the basis for the development of future clinical studies including correlation with other diagnostic methods (EEG, magnetic resonance, and SPECT). The next step will be the comparative study of seizures of patients with left and right TLE, with a greater number of patients, and the development of a digital video library.
Rossetti, Franco; Garcia-Cairasco, N; Rodrigues, M C A Araujo; Cortes De Oliveira, J. A.
The importance of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNPr), striatum (STR) and superior colicullus (SC) in the blockade of experimental seizures is well known. But, in audiogenic seizures (brainstem tonic-clonic seizures), the anticonvulsant activity of these nuclei is still controversial. In the present study we aimed to analyze the STR-SNPr-CS circuitry in the audiogenicseizures of Wistar audiogenic rat (WAR). Behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) data were collected from WARs under no treatment or injection with systemic (phenobarbital) or intracerebral (intranigral) drugs (muscimol and phenobarbital). The main EEG frequency oscillation of STR, SNPr and SC seen before, during and after audiogenic seizuresor during seizure protection, was determinated with wavelet spectral analyses. This method allows the association between behavior and EEG (video-EEG). Audiogenic seizures last only for half a minute in average, suggesting that the interruptions of seizures are probably not due to exhaustion. Systemic phenobarbital caused an acute and dose-dependent behavioral and EEGraphic anticonvulsant effect both in WARs. The dose of phenobarbital 15mg/kg protected animals almost completely, without side effects such as ataxia and sedation. In our data, this endogenous “natural” seizure blockade (or termination) seems to be similar to the “forced” seizure abolition, like the one caused by a systemic non-ataxic phenobarbital dose, because in both cases an intense decrease in the EEG main frequency oscillation can be seen in SNPr and SC. Intranigral phenobarbital or muscimol did not protect animals, and actually induced an increase in the main EEG frequency oscillation in SC. The main finding of the present study is that, in contrast to what is well believed about the incapacity to control audiogenic seizures by the striato-nigro-tectal circuitry, we collected here evidences that these nuclei are involved in the ability to block these seizures. However, the striato-nigro-tectal circuitry in WARs, a genetically developed strain, seems to have different functional mechanisms when compared with normal rats.